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Duel is the essence of Chinese Wushu. The categories of duel now in practice are Sanshou (free sparring), and weapon fighting.

(1)Sanshou (Free Sparring)

Sanshcu is a new modern Wushu variety which is based on the tradition of martial arts. Attack is the essence of Wushu. In ancient times, there were combative con-tests. In view of the development of Wushu both at home and abroad, the Chinese Wushu Association made extensive investigations and practices before making Sanshou an official competition event. The first international Sanshou invitational tournament was staged at the 1988 International Wushu Festival.

In Sanshou the contestants compete with such techniques as kicking, hitting and wrestling under certain regulations. They are permitted to use both hands and feet, which facilitates flexible moves and tricks. To keep themselves safe, they have to wear safety gear (head .gear, Chuan gloves, groin cover and shin guards)

(2)Hand Pushing

Hand pushing is one type of grappling which depends upon pushing, shoving, elbowing, leaning against, pressing, shouldering, thrusting and jamming, to get the better of one's opponent. Hand pushing can enhance the combative ability of hand pushers and increase their combative insight and flexibility. Hand pushing usually means the hand pushing of Tai Chi Quan. Some other fist fighting styles also have hand pushing exercises.

(3)Weapon Fighting

In weapon fighting, combatants use various long and short weapons to fight in accordance with certain regulations. At present, weapon fighting is not as popular as SansHou or hand pushing. Major programs of weapon fighting include duels between short weapons such as sabre and sword, and between long weapons like spears and cudgels.


Neigong is classified as inner exercises and falls into two categories. One is to improve health for the prevention and cure of diseases. Exercises in this category include breathing exercises, mental exercises and stand ing exercises. Chinese Wushu advocates reinforcement of the physique before beginning to learn fighting skills. Therefore maintaining good health has become one of the major concerns of inner exercises. The other category is concerned with improving one's ability to defend and attack. Such exercises include self-beating and self-hitting (this exercise prepares one to take and receive attack from his opponents), palming (this exercise increases the hitting force of the palm), and roving around and through wooden piles (this enhances agility of the body by meandering through piles).

Neigong is unique to the Chinese Wushu training system. Some of the inner exercises have become independent of their original schools and styles and have mixed with similar exercises from other schools, making them more comprehensive.

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